TERMINOLOGY

ANILINE DYED (an-a-line)

Aniline dyed leathers are tumbled for up to 12 hours in drums containing transparent dyes. The dyes penetrate the cell layers throughout the hide, producing deep, vibrant colours that preserve the hide's natural markings and characteristics. Pure aniline leathers represent approximately 5% of all upholstery leathers produced worldwide.

 

ANTIQUED / DISTRESSED GRAIN

A surface pattern of markings or creases, in which the hollows are given a contrasting colour to produce a two-tone effect that emulates the natural signs of aging.

 

BUFFED LEATHER

Leather from which the top surface of the grain has been removed by an abrasive or bladed cylinder or, less generally, by hand. In the case of upholstery leather the buffing process is invariably carried out by machine, though it is sometimes incorrectly described as hand buffed.

CORRECTED GRAIN LEATHERS

Many hides are marred by naturally occurring imperfections. Insect bites, barbed wire scars, scrapes and other defects make them unsuitable for your home. To remove these imperfections, Corrected Grain leathers are first sanded or buffed, then embossed to restore a natural-looking grain pattern. Usually the most economical grade of top grain upholstery leather.

 

DRUM-DYED

A dyeing process in which leather is immersed in dye and tumbled in a rotating drum, allowing maximum dye penetration.

 

DYEING

The application of colour, either by spraying, hand rubbing or immersion.

 

EMBOSSING

A process in which design is added to leather by pressure to alter or correct the surface, resulting in uniform imitation grain.

 

FINISHING

Any post tanning treatment, such as: dyeing, rolling, pressing, spraying, lacquering, antiquing, waxing, buffing, embossing, glazing, waterproofing, or flame-proofing.

 

FULL GRAIN

A term which indicates that leather possesses its original, natural grain; leather which has not been altered.

 

GRAIN

The distinctive pore and wrinkle pattern of a hide; may be either natural or embossed.

 

HOH

Hair on hide

HAND

A term used to describe the softness or feel of a leather.

 

NATURAL GRAIN

The unaltered top grain surface of leather.

 

NUBUCK

A brushed, grain-sueded leather.

 

PATINA (pa-tee-na)

A lustre that develops with time and use.

 

PIGMENTED

Leather that is finished with a solid pigment coating for consistency of colour and texture. Pigment may be used to cover imperfections, as well as add protection.

 

PREMIUM SELECT

A term describing hides with virtually no scars or blemishes, usually less than 5% of all hides.

 

PULL-UP

Describes the behaviour of leather that has been treated with oils, waxes, and dyes in such a way that when the leather is pulled or stretched (i.e. on upholstery), the finish becomes lighter in the stretched areas. Considered a mark of high quality.

 

PURE ANALINE

Leather that is aniline dyed and receives no additional colouring. Also called full aniline, naked aniline or naked leather.

 

SANDING

Refers to the removal of grain, scars and blemishes from a hide.

 

SEMI-ANILINE (an-a-lin)

Sometimes call “Aniline Plus”, these leathers are first drum dyed in penetrating aniline dyes. Then a thin matching topcoat is applied to even out the colour of the hide surface. The topcoat also serves to protect against fading and stains. Semi-Aniline leathers are available in hundreds of colours. They retain most of the softness or their aniline dyed cousins because the natural top grain is left intact. A much larger proportion of the world hide supply is suitable for this class of leathers and as a result they are more moderately priced.

 

SUEDE

Leathers that are finished by buffing the flesh side (opposite the grain side) to produce a nap.

 

TANNING

Process whereby, perishable, raw hides and skins are converted into leather.

 

TOP GRAIN

The top surface of the hide.

© VANVILLE LEATHER LTD  EST 1994